We Construct Biogas Digesters
One of the main environmental problems confronting society today is the unceasing increase in the production of organic wastes that are harmful to human existence. There are millions of tons of biomass waste being produced every year for which disposal remains a problem. At the same time the world is rapidly depleting its supply of natural gas, which is known to be the cleanest of the fossil fuels. Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a technology for converting all that biomass waste into Biogas, which is a gaseous fuel, especially methane, produced by the fermentation of organic matter.
Biogas is produced by the breakdown of organic waste by bactaria without oxygen (Anaerobic Digestion).
It is composed of Methane (CH4), Carbon dioxide(CO2), water vapour (H2O), and may have small amounts of other gases like hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and Nitrogen (N2). Methane is the primary component of conventional natural gas (which contains up to 20% other combustible gases, such as propane, butane and ethane, which are absent in biogas), commonly used for cooking and heating, although biogas is not as energy dense. However, the methane in biogas represents the largest part (typically 55-65%, compared with about 70-90% in utility-supplied natural gas) which gives the gas a calorific value of about 20 MJ/m3. This energy allows biogas to be used as a fuel for cooking and lighting; it can also be used for electricity generation through a gas engine, or co-fueled in diesel generators to reduce diesel consumption.
Uses and Equivalents of 1-Cubic Metre of Biogas
Biogas is produced within a reactor known as a Digester.
At MiddleBrook Farms, we specialize in building small, medium, and large Biogas Digesters/Reactors.
A Biogas Digester/Reactor is a machine used for the production of biogas which is a by-product of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in an anaerobic condition. This biogas reactor is also known as biogas plant or an anaerobic digestion unit.
This Biogas Digesters are used to convert 'waste' materials such as animal manure, excreta, sewage sludge and kitchen wastes to biogas while the effluent slurry can be used as fertilizer by biotransformation processes.
Within biogas technology, there are different type of digesters avalable that can be used for anaerobic digestion. In the context of developing countries, the following system types are most suited for small-medium scale biogas production:
*Fixed Dome model
*Floating Dome model
*Combined Digester and GasHolder model
Biogas can be produced from a broad range of feedstocks that are suitable for anaerobic digestion. It can be made from most biomass and waste materials regardless of the composition and over a large range of moisture contents, with limited feedstock preparation.
Feedstocks for biogas production may be solid, slurries, and both concentrated and dilute liquids. In fact, biogas can even be made from the left over organic material from both ethanol and biodiesel production.
A great many biogas installations are processing residual sludge from wastewater treatment plants.
Other facilities are processing wastes from chicken processing, juice processing, brewing, and dairy production.
However, the range of potential waste feedstocks is much broader including: municipal wastewater, residual sludge, food waste, food processing wastewater, dairy manure, poultry manure, aquaculture wastewater, seafood processing wastewater, yard wastes, and municipal solid wastes. Food processing wastewaters may come from citrus processing, dairy processing, vegetable canning, potato processing, breweries, and sugar production.
There are many potential energy crops, which may be suitable for biogas production including: sugarcane, sorghum, napier grass, as well as, woody crops (tree crops).
The best crops should have low fertility requirements, and low energy costs for planting and harvesting. Further, ethanol production from an energy crop will produce large volumes of stillage wastewater, which can be converted to biogas.
Also, the production of biodiesel from oil crops produces a glycerol wastewater that also may be converted to biogas.
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